The atmosphere of the building
The Earth’s atmosphere has a number of layers that differ in their various properties: temperature, pressure, height, composition, etc.
The area of the atmosphere extending from the surface of the planet to a distance of ~ 9 kilometers at poles, or up to 18 kilometers on the equator. The closer to the equator, the higher this layer is above the surface. By the way, in winter, the troposphere is a little closer to Earth than in the summer.
This layer of the atmosphere is basic since it contains about 80% of the total mass of air. In it almost all atmospheric phenomena are formed.
Along with the stratosphere, the main layer is responsible for protecting the Earth from solar radiation.
The temperature in the troposphere gradually decreases with increasing altitude (about 0.65 degrees for every 100 meters). Thus, the temperature at the boundary of the layer is lowered to about -56 ° C.
A small layer (up to several kilometers thick), separating the troposphere and the stratosphere.
It is characterized by the fact that in this layer temperature ceases to decrease with increasing height.
It is also a very important layer of the atmosphere. It stretches to a height of about fifty kilometers. Contains about 20% of the mass of air.
The temperature in it rises to zero degrees.
The stratosphere contains the ozone layer of the Earth (ozone layer). He defines the limit to which living organisms exist in the biosphere of the planet.
Most of the short-wave radiation is absorbed by the stratosphere itself, due to which various heavenly phenomena arise: oars, northern light, and the like.
The atmospheric layer separating the stratosphere and the mesosphere, about 5 kilometers in thickness. Its temperature remains constant – about 0 ° C.
This layer of atmosphere is at a distance of 50-90 km from the surface of the planet. The temperature in it decreases at a rate of 0.3 ° C per hundred meters and drops to -80 ° C.
The mesosphere consists only of nitrogen (80%) and oxygen (20%).
It is in this layer that we can observe the so-called falling stars (meteors). Small celestial bodies (meteoroid, for example), getting into the atmosphere, burn in it, as a rule, not reaching the surface of the planet. And it happens almost always in the mesosphere. It is in it that they begin to glow, which makes us able to observe such a beautiful phenomenon.
The author of the photo – tonya, link to the original (photo has been changed).
The layer is located between the mesosphere and the thermosphere. Its average temperature is about -90 ° C.
This is an officially accepted boundary of the atmosphere – 100 kilometers above sea level.
The temperature in the thermosphere is increasing and reaching a value of 1200 ° C at a height of several hundred kilometers. After this, it stays steadily high until the completion of the layer (about 800 kilometers above sea level, depends on the activity of the Sun). Inside the thermosphere is the ionosphere.
Due to the influence of solar radiation, in the thermosphere you can observe a beautiful phenomenon of polar radiance (ionization of air).
The atmosphere layer, located above the thermosphere. It does not nearly change the temperature, and it almost does not absorb radiation.
Scattering zone. She is called, because in the exosphere, the gas is very rare, because of which it flows into the interplanetary space.
This layer starts at about 700-800 kilometers and stretches to 10 thousand kilometers. Although already at an altitude of 2-3 thousand kilometers, he passes into a near-space vacuum.
There is an atmosphere of nitrogen, oxygen, other gases and impurities (ice particles, dust, etc.).
Nitrogen fills about 78% of the atmosphere, oxygen – 21%, and the remaining almost 1% accounts for argon. The atmosphere also contains carbon dioxide, helium, methane, neon, hydrogen, and other gases. But they all occupy a tiny part of the total volume.
It contains all of this, for the most part, in the troposphere. But some part falls on the stratosphere. In the remaining layers of the atmosphere, such a variety of gases can not be found.