Lizards and their peculiarities
Lizards are a subcatch of scaly reptiles. Its composition includes practically all flaky reptiles, with the exception of snakes. And with snakes, by the way, many lizards are very similar.…

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Types of microorganisms and their significance
Microorganisms are a group of so small living organisms that they are not visible by human vision. Their size is less than 1 millimeter, and, sometimes, much less. Although there…

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Pandemics (mass epidemics)
Pandemic is an epidemic that is massive in nature. That is, an epidemic that can spread across territories of many can hit entire continents.countries that The most famous pandemics -…

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Viruses and viral diseases

The virus is an infectious agent that does not have a cellular structure, and is capable of reproducing only within cells of living organisms. For this they are referred to obligatory parasites.
They exist wherever there is life. And they are at the same time the most numerous form of life. Their study is practiced by science of virology.

Photo by Razza Mathadsa, link to the original (photo has been changed).
The structure of viruses

The main parts of all viruses are genetic material (genome) represented as DNA or RNA, and capsid (Protective protein shell of the genome). Sometimes they may have one or more additional lipid shells that perform a protective function. But precisely the presence of the genome and the capsid is a hallmark of these parasites. Yes, there are infectious agents, similar to viruses, but without capsids. They are called viroids. They are also a very common form of life. However, unlike viruses that affect all living organisms, they affect plants, for the most part.
But infectious agents that do not contain DNA or RNA are called prions. And for humans, they are deadly, as they affect the nerve tissue (including those contained in the brain). There are no medications from such diseases.

Infectious agents are very small. So that they can not be well considered under a light microscope. So, with the naked eye we do not see even bacteria, and viruses are less than their hundreds of times, do you imagine?

Hypotheses of origin

No one can reliably say where the virus came from. It is believed that they exist since the appearance of living cells, but this is only an assumption.
Many hypotheses of their origin have been put forward, but the main, most probable, are only three of them:

According to a regressive hypothesis, these parasites used to be very small cells that parasitized cells in living organisms. But, unnecessarily, a number of genes have disappeared, due to which substantially changed. It remains unclear why these degraded cells are not alike to living cells.

The cell-based hypothesis suggests that the viruses arose as a result of the release of a DNA or RNA fragment from the cell’s genome and subsequent changes. But there was no explanation for how parasites took their current look. And in particular, whence came the same capsid (protein shell), as well as lipid shells.

But the supporters of the co-evolution hypothesis believe that the infectious agents were formed together with living cells, and had approximately the same structure as now. But, in this case, they are seen as independent non-cellular forms of life, and this is not so. Parasites can not exist without cells of living organisms.

Caves and their peculiarities
A cave is a natural cavity in the upper layer of the earth's crust, which has at least one exit to the surface. Sometimes caves are the most complicated systems…


Flies and their role in nature
Flies are very common flying two-winged insects. They inhabit practically all warm areas of the planet, delivering many problems to living organisms, including people. After all, flies are the carriers…