Cranberry is a medicinal plant
Cranberry is a group of evergreen stellate shrubs growing on the bogs of the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth. These plants are valued for their edible fruits - cranberry berries.…

Continue reading →

Cultivated plants of our planet
Crop plants are those plants that are grown by humans for eating, feeding animals, receiving medicines or raw materials, etc. All these plants are also called agro-crops. Barley Classification 1.…

Continue reading →

Big panda
The big panda is a species of mammals belonging to the bear family. These animals have an interesting black-and-white color, thanks to which they look very cute. In addition to…

Continue reading →

Viruses and viral diseases

The virus is an infectious agent that does not have a cellular structure, and is capable of reproducing only within cells of living organisms. For this they are referred to obligatory parasites.
They exist wherever there is life. And they are at the same time the most numerous form of life. Their study is practiced by science of virology.

Viruses
Photo by Razza Mathadsa, link to the original (photo has been changed).
The structure of viruses

The main parts of all viruses are genetic material (genome) represented as DNA or RNA, and capsid (Protective protein shell of the genome). Sometimes they may have one or more additional lipid shells that perform a protective function. But precisely the presence of the genome and the capsid is a hallmark of these parasites. Yes, there are infectious agents, similar to viruses, but without capsids. They are called viroids. They are also a very common form of life. However, unlike viruses that affect all living organisms, they affect plants, for the most part.
But infectious agents that do not contain DNA or RNA are called prions. And for humans, they are deadly, as they affect the nerve tissue (including those contained in the brain). There are no medications from such diseases.

Prions
Infectious agents are very small. So that they can not be well considered under a light microscope. So, with the naked eye we do not see even bacteria, and viruses are less than their hundreds of times, do you imagine?

Hypotheses of origin

No one can reliably say where the virus came from. It is believed that they exist since the appearance of living cells, but this is only an assumption.
Many hypotheses of their origin have been put forward, but the main, most probable, are only three of them:

According to a regressive hypothesis, these parasites used to be very small cells that parasitized cells in living organisms. But, unnecessarily, a number of genes have disappeared, due to which substantially changed. It remains unclear why these degraded cells are not alike to living cells.

The cell-based hypothesis suggests that the viruses arose as a result of the release of a DNA or RNA fragment from the cell’s genome and subsequent changes. But there was no explanation for how parasites took their current look. And in particular, whence came the same capsid (protein shell), as well as lipid shells.

But the supporters of the co-evolution hypothesis believe that the infectious agents were formed together with living cells, and had approximately the same structure as now. But, in this case, they are seen as independent non-cellular forms of life, and this is not so. Parasites can not exist without cells of living organisms.

Frogs and their significance
Frogs are a group of very common animals, in which you can include, as well as all non-tailing amphibians, and only representatives of the real Frog family. Usually, under the…

...

Wolves are dangerous predators
Wolves are a kind of dangerous predatory mammals belonging to the dog family. Due to their habits, appearance, strength and cleverness, they are very famous animals. By the way, dogs…

...