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Types of microorganisms and their significance

Microorganisms are a group of so small living organisms that they are not visible by human vision. Their size is less than 1 millimeter, and, sometimes, much less. Although there are relatively large organisms in this group, they can even be considered with due diligence. The study of all of them is engaged in the science of microbiology.

Representatives of the group

In nature there are tens of thousands of species of microorganisms, and these are only those we know about. They are quite diverse. Some differ in habitat, others – in a way or in conditions of existence, in others – in structure. So, almost all of them are unicellular, but they are found among them and multicellular, albeit rarely.

All microorganisms can be divided into 2 groups: non-nuclear (prokaryotes) and having a cellular nucleus (eukaryotes).

Prokaryotes are unicellular living organisms that do not have a cellular nucleus. Sometimes they are called dyadernye, and in the 20th century they were called monetars, but now this term is not used. Representatives of prokaryotes are only two domains of living organisms: bacteria and archeas. It is believed that there are millions of species of microorganisms pertaining to these domains. But finding something that you do not see with an unarmed sight is rather difficult, so today about ten or two thousand species are known.

Microorganisms belonging to the Eukaryotic domain can be both multicellular and single-celled. Their main feature is the presence of a nucleus in a cell, so they are also called nuclear. By the way, virtually all living organisms that are in nature, refer to the eukaryotes. Exceptions are bacteria, archeas, and viruses.
Microorganisms possessing a cellular nucleus are not very numerous. They are united in one group – opposites, although not all nuclear microscopic organisms enter it.


Bacteria are the domain of microorganisms (most commonly unicellular) that do not have a nucleus. In nature, there are a huge number of species, hundreds of thousands, and even millions, probably.

The fact is that they are so small that it is quite difficult to find them, and even more so to study. Only about ten thousand types of bacteria are described. Well, their number, of course, does not even count. But one can say that practically all of them perform a certain role in nature, and have some unique properties. And based on this knowledge, bacteria are divided into different types, classes, families and genus.

In total, science has 4 types of bacteria, but each of them includes a large number of species:

– Tenericutes

– Firmicutes.

– Gracilicutes.

– Mendosicutes.

Archeas are a domain of unicellular living organisms that do not have a nucleus and membrane organelles. Proceeding from the peculiarities of the species of these microorganisms, they are divided into 8 types (6 main and 2 supposed). And each of the types, in turn, is divided into one or several classes of arches, possessing unique properties. Classes include families and genera of archaeas.

Archetype types:

– Thaumarchaeota.

– Corrared

– Nanoarchaeota.

– Aigarchaeota.

– Euryarchaeota.

– Crenarchaeota.

– Thorarchaeota (supposed type).

– Lokiarchaeota (supposed type).

Protists are called a group of living organisms that belong to the Eukaryotic domain (their cells have a nucleus) and are not part of animals, plants, mushrooms and chromites. It was created on the “final principle”. And, accordingly, it includes different living organisms, which are very different from each other.

Proceeding from their mode of movement in space, the protesters are divided into 3 types. And each of these types, based on other features of the species, is divided into classes, families and genus:

– Infusoria

– Sporoviki

– sarcomasticoforms
Role of microorganisms in nature

Microscopic organisms are found practically everywhere, where there is water. The optimum temperature for them is 0-50 ° C (very roughly), although they can exist even at more extreme temperatures. The record high temperature for them, as for all living beings, is 122 ° C. It is worth to understand that not all representatives of this group of living beings will stand such a temperature. Each species has its own characteristics.

The main role of microorganisms in nature lies in the implementation of metabolism. And since they inhabit almost everywhere, this role is very large. In most cases, they are reductive, that is, they process residues of living beings. But sometimes they act as producers, producing organic substances from inorganic materials. And because of the fact that these creatures can live in places where other living organisms will not survive, they are sometimes the only producers of ecosystems.

For a person, microorganisms can be both useful and not very. For example, thanks to it, it carries out self-purification of water in various reservoirs. And they also take part in the cycle of various elements: iron, phosphorus, sulfur and others. This is a clear benefit, if not straightforward, at least indirectly. But there are also many kinds of oh

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