The structure of the mountains and their classification
Mountains are uneven parts of the land, rising steeply over the adjoining areas of 500 meters or more. They can have different shapes, drawings, size. Because of what they are attributed to different groups.
Education of mountains
Mountains occur in places with tectonic activity. Most of them are formed as a result of the convergence of lithospheric plates, but they can also appear as a result of volcanic activity. Depending on the conditions of education, they are divided into tectonic, volcanic and erosion.
The structure of the mountains
The fundamental part of the mountain is its foot, it is on it that all the rest is located. The upper part of this natural formation is called the apex. And the sloping area, stretching from the foot to the top, is called a mountain slope. And these slopes can be both flat and steep, and can also be complex forms of relief.
The mountain with a steep slope
Photo by Steven Bratman, link to the original (photo has been changed).
Often, mountains stretched out in length can have a drop, which is a v-shaped relief. Called this pass, and, in fact, is an aisle between the mountains. Having passed through it, it is possible to find yourself in a mountain valley – a relatively even sloping area formed by long-term exposure to water.
Forms of mountain relief
Mountains can have one of seven forms of relief, which depends on their structure, age and occupied area:
– island mountains have a small height and length;
– mountain groups represent an isolated mountain area;
– mountainous countries are vast territories with complex relief and rising a couple of kilometers above sea level;
– mountain ranges – these are isolated parts of mountainous countries;
– mountain ridges are high elongated relief forms having two slopes converging in the upper part of the mountain (this line, through which the slopes cross, is called the crest of the spine);
– mountain systems – these are mountains with similar relief, the same causes of formation, and at the same time united territorially;
– mountain belt – these are built in a line (not quite straight, and sometimes interrupted) mountain systems.
The main value in which mountains are measured is height. High mountains are those that rise above sea level by more than 3 kilometers, or have a relative height exceeding 2 kilometers. And there are quite a lot of them in the world.