The importance of swamps in nature
The swamp is a part of the earth’s surface, which has excess moisture, high acidity and low soil fertility, which is the consequence of raising the ground water to the surface, which, however, does not form a constant layer of water. The word itself means “dirt”. This is true, because the swamps represent a mixture of soil, water, and semi-decomposable organic matter (mainly of vegetable origin) that are on the surface. Characteristic smell arises precisely because of them. Over time, these substances, incidentally, turn into a useful resource – peat.
Causes of formation of marshes
Most bogs occur for natural reasons, but some are also caused by people’s fault. In general, the reasons for their formation can be divided into 2 groups: overgrown reservoirs and waterlogging of the soil.
In the first case, various reservoirs (lakes, ponds, reservoirs) grow up in algae so much that any significant water exchange in them practically ceases, because of which, over time, they turn into such an incomprehensible mash. This participation awaits a lot of lakes, and there is no guilty thing about it, do not forbid plants to grow.
In the second case, the marsh occur, in fact, in an empty place. The most common option is when they are formed in the lower reaches. And this happens when there is abundant rainfall in that area, a small (or simply insufficient) level of evaporation of moisture, and also there are sufficiently close to the surface of the groundwater located. In this case, there is simply no place for water to flow, and over the years the territory turns into a swamp.
Also, these reservoirs can be formed due to the construction of dams or activities of beavers.
Properties of swamps
The most interesting of the marsh effects is mummification. The fact is that almost all the water in these reservoirs contains a large amount of acids of decomposed plant substances. This greatly slows the growth of bacteria, but in fact they, in this case, perform the role of reductants (processing organic matter). As a result, organic bodies that fall into the stove can remain in this solution for millennia. So, the most ancient man discovered mummy is about 2500 years old. And she was surprisingly well preserved.
Another interesting property of the marsh is the glow. It represents itself arising without any system and flashing here and there, bright lights and glows. Part of them is simply explained – these are phosphorescent organisms living in a given area. Another part of the glow is caused by rotting plants, which are very numerous in the swamps. And sometimes luminescence arises due to spontaneous combustion of mist gas, methane. And these are just the most frequent causes of the formation of glow. Although they may be caused by radioactive mineral deposits, and other reasons.
Classification of marshes
Depending on the properties of the marshes compared, different classifications are used. Thus, under the conditions of water-mineral nutrition they are divided into 3 types: low-lying, upper and transitional. The lowlands have good water and mineral nutrition because they are located near various sources of water: near lakes, in the floodplains of rivers, close to groundwater sources, and just in low places where water flows. The upper marshes have scant water nutrition, which is based on precipitation. Well, the transitions are something of an average between the two of these types.
Also, the classification of marshes can be based on the type of vegetation that prevails there. Allot 4 types of marshes: moss, grass, bush and forest. I think it’s not necessary to explain what each of these bogs is.
Depending on the microrelief of the terrain, marshes are divided into flat, hollow, convex, and concave. But this is if we consider the form of swamps, and if we consider only the locality, then they are sloping, valleys, floodplains, watersheds, etc.
But the main interest, of course, is the swamps that stand out among others. We will tell about the largest swamps.
The role of swamps in nature
The swamps are “light planets”. The benefit provided by them is comparable to the use of forests. They only have a slightly different effect. Marshes reduce the amount of carbon dioxide contained in the atmosphere. This happens due to the burial of undisturbed plant (and not only) organic matter, because when it decomposes carbon dioxide is released in large quantities. But in the swamp flies, this organ is transformed into coal into time.
Strangely enough, marshes are good water filters, as well as sanitarians of agrarian (agricultural) ecological systems. They are also valuable to natural resources extracted from them. First of all, this peat, the application of which is very wide. But the plants that grow in these places, too, are very important. For example, cranberries, blueberries, and mistletoe.
Cranberries in the swamp
The author of the photo – Leo-setä, link to the original (photo has been changed).
Unfortunately, the swamps bring not only benefits. Methane formed here in large quantities